Thursday, January 22, 2015

Mid Term Post

George Reese
Journalism Class
Literature Review
What Does the Literature Say About Parenting Affecting Children?
     Ever since Noam Chomsky proposed that nature and nurture both had key roles in child development, child nurturing and parenting has become exponentially more important. In today’s society, parents shelter, coddle, and spoil their children into entitlement that they will not always receive. This sheltering, or “Helicopter Parenting”, has caused anxiety and stress to run rampant when real pressure or responsibility shows up. The way a child is cared for, socially, economically, and physically has a direct correlation to the mental and physical health; as well as affecting their attitude and work ethics.
     One of the most important factors in a child’s development is the socioeconomic status of their parents or legal guardians. It’s no secret that parenting methods differ depending on social class. “Poverty and economic loss diminish the capacity for supportive, consistent, and involved parenting and render parents more vulnerable to the debilitating effects of negative life events” (McLoyd "The Impact of Economic Hardship on Black Families and Children: Psychological Distress, Parenting, and Emotional Development.") Along with the stress associated with poverty, the stress deriving from health issues, family issues and everyday life lead to lapses in parental judgment and lack of time for parenting. “The developmental outcomes parents expect and desire for their children and the roles parents see for themselves in achieving those outcomes vary…” (Hoff 231-252) meaning that each parent has his or her own plan what role they will fill as a parent and what their child will do in the future. Parents who have better goals set for their children may positively influence their children into doing better in life.  Economic status influences the parenting style, likelihood of completing high school, and the stability of the household the children are involved in.
     On top of the psychological effects of living in poverty, the physical effects devastate children and parents of impoverished families. The cost of living and maintaining a healthy life style are far more expensive than its processed competition. In a low income area, with a limited amount of money, a parent can acquire unhealthy processed food in abundance, they can spend the minimal amount of money for the maximum amount of food. This trend of spending as little money as possible on nutrition, greatly affects the development of young children. This unhealthy diet can lead to mood swings, depression, trouble sleeping, diabetes and even obesity. Also these unhealthy eating habits and malnutrition can create a pattern that is very hard to break later in life.
     Another issue with parent’s economic status is the effects brought on by it later in life. Students from low income backgrounds will face more stress than their economically advantaged counterparts because they have to deal with the stress of forgone wages and the costs of borrowing (Luthar, "The culture of affluence: Psychological costs of material wealth."). These students, balancing school, work, and financial responsibilities, often crumble under the pressure and leave school, putting them in the same position with no continuing education to better themselves with. This continuation of poverty is disallowing young people from bettering themselves and living their dreams.
     Along with economic status, the condition of the family the child is in greatly affects the future success and attitude of the child. For example, a family with strong parental figures and a regular set schedule are more likely to be able to respect authority, listen to and complete instructions, and function in a timely manner respecting deadlines and other organizational matters (Astone, McLanahan). “One reason children from single-parent families are less likely to finish high school is the precarious economic position of their families. Mother-only families are more likely than any families to be poor.” (Astone, McLanahan), this shows that there is a direct link between divorce and economic hardship; meaning that not only is a divorce psychological affecting children it may also be affecting them economically therefore setting back their development even further. “Divorce, a major cause of single parent families, impoverishes the household of the divorced wife (Weitzman, 1981)” (Dornbusch, 326-341). In most cases, these unstable families have little to no economic stability, and when the families split they increase they financial strains on themselves. Although separately they both affect families greatly, poverty and family instability together can crush a families dreams of existing further.
     Another factor that influences children, as they develop, is the values and morals instilled in a child by their parents or guardians. Children mirror the behavior of their parents and subconsciously want to be more like them. When this influence is a positive one, the child receives morals, beliefs, and a determination to better themselves. When the influence is bad it can lead the child into, drugs, alcohol, or other harmful substances or scenarios. Arguably, parenting is the most important factor in how a child turns out. If a person’s childhood is traumatic, or full of stress it can lead to mental problems, physical conditions, or even a distrust of authority.
     Along with developing who they are as a person through their childhood, people also define who they are as a person, and eventually parent themselves. “Parenting includes generic endowment and direct effects of experience that manifest in parent’s beliefs and behaviors; parenting’s indirect influences take place through parent’s relationships with each other and their connection to community networks…” (Bornstein, Socioneconomic status, Parenting, and Child Development). This definition of parenting acknowledges the influence that a parent has on their child’s development, directly and indirectly. This shows that the interaction a parent has with their child is crucial to key developmental stages, for example a child who grows up with two stable parental figures who encourage and care for the child will learn to love and care for others. Adversely, if a child grows up in a broken home with little to no guidance, they are more likely to have marital problems as well as child care issues in their own life.
     Parenting, is arguably the most important influence on a child’s life through its development. How the parental figures interact, and influence their children directly affects their personality and morals later on. Along with the morals and parenting styles used, a child is influenced by their family’s economic status, and the stability of their home. Children from poverty stricken or one parent households have a harder time overcoming obstacles and prospering later on in life economically, and mentally. Parent’s use the same methods of parenting that were used on them, in some cases this can be good, but in others it creates a vicious cycle of abuse that continues for generations.
     Although it proves contrary to what the literature says, there are instances where the environmental, and parental factors did not influence the outcome of the child. For example: a child from poverty who was abused who grew up to be a successful businessman, or a rich kid who grew up with everything who ends up with nothing because of their own laziness. Parenting influences children, but it doesn’t overwhelm strong characteristics like determination or lack thereof it.
     Overall, parenting is definitely the most important, and influential part of a person’s childhood. Along with the parenting style implemented by the guardians, the parent’s socioeconomic status, and the stability of the family greatly influences the child as well. Children from poor socioeconomic status with an unstable family life, tend to attain less education, and be less successful in their careers. On the contrary a child from a high socioeconomic status who has a stable family life is far more likely to be educated, and far more likely to be a successful person late in life. Although the outcome of each person is determined by their own actions, and decisions, parenting and the socioeconomic status of the families greatly affect the outcome of the child.

Works Cited:
1.      Astone, Nan Marie, and Sara S. McLanahan. "Family structure, parental practices and high school completion." American sociological review (1991): 309-320.
2.      Bornstein, Marc H., and Robert H. Bradley, eds. Socioeconomic status, parenting, and child development. Routledge, 2014.
3.      Dornbusch, Sanford M., et al. "Single parents, extended households, and the control of adolescents." Child development (1985): 326-341.
4.      Luthar, Suniya S. "The culture of affluence: Psychological costs of material wealth." Child development 74.6 (2003): 1581-1593.
5.      Hoff, Erika, Brett Laursen, and Twila Tardif. "Socioeconomic status and parenting." Handbook of Parenting Volume 2: Biology and Ecology of Parenting (2002): 231-52.
6.      Maccoby, Eleanor E. "Parenting and its effects on children: On reading and misreading behavior genetics." The Science of Mental Health: Personality and personality disorder 51 (2001): 201.
7.      McLoyd, Vonnie C. "The impact of economic hardship on black families and children: Psychological distress, parenting, and emotional development." Child development 61.2 (1990): 311-346.
8.      Okagaki, Lynn, and Peter A. Frensch. "Parenting and children’s school achievement: A multiethnic perspective." American Educational Research Journal 35.1 (1998): 123-144.

Gap Identification


Research methods

Conclusion Discussion

Thursday, October 23, 2014

Bias Response: NFL and Abuse: It's not just Ray Rice

     In her article NFL and Abuse: It’s not just Ray Rice, Mel Robbins explores domestic violence, an issue that is in the spotlight because of the recent allegations against Ray Rice. Robbins provides an educated opinion on how the abuse should not only be punished, but prevented with precautionary measures. She criticizes Roger Goodell, and how the NFL has handled domestic abuse allegations. Robbins states that, “Ray Rice has been punished for his despicable elevator assault on Janay Palmer, who's now his wife. Now it's time for the NFL to be punished for its despicable handling of it. The NFL commissioner, Roger Goodell, must go”. Throughout this article Robbins continually makes claims based on her gender and hostile media biases, which generalize the NFL as an organization which condones domestic violence; when in reality the actions are those of the individuals and not the league.
     Although it is not necessarily a negative bias, Mel Robbins has a journalistic gender bias, she sees domestic abuse as a more prevalent issue because she is a woman. She takes this bias a little too far, claiming that “the NFL and the Baltimore Ravens have handled the incident so horrendously that they're guilty of abusing Janay Rice too.” Obviously the NFL, nor the Baltimore Ravens assaulted, or condoned the assault on Janay Rice, so stating that they are guilty of anything other than covering up the story and letting Rice play is ridiculous. Although it is very easy to see how Mel Robbins is biased towards a mostly male-on-female violent trend that is happening in the United States currently, taking her opinionated rant as truth would not be wise.
     Another bias that plagues Mel Robbins’ writing is her hostile media bias. She goes on a tirade on a topic that is currently in the public eye. Domestic violence in sports and everyday life has been a problem well before the NFL brought it into the public eye, and to blame this nationwide problem on Roger Goodell and the NFL is just a desperate attempt to get people to read her editorial. In reality the only thing the NFL is guilty of is covering up one isolated incident, when they have documented proof of handling domestic violence incidents by the league protocol countless other times. Although Mel Robbins is correct in saying that we need to address the nationwide problem of domestic violence, I believe she let her biases get the better of her in her writing, blaming the issues on the NFL and Roger Goodell.


Tuesday, October 7, 2014

Interview Assignment

     Who is Tony Cerce? I sat down to get the answer to that question and found myself face to face with the man himself. Throughout the conversation, as I got to know him, I found quite the personality in this small kid. He is a rugged American kid stating that he typically spends his time "outdoors playing soccer" with his friends, and "playing hockey on Sundays". He is a fierce competitor, claiming that the most memorable thing he did was "Probably scoring the game tying goal in my soccer game the other day." The most surprising answer I was given during my conversation with Tony was when I asked him what kind of dinosaur he would be. "Probably a T-Rex, I've always just pictured myself  running around with little arms" he replied, saying it calmly and quickly like a man who had thought deeply on the subject. Above all he is a modest man with a love for where he grew up, saying "If I has a million dollars to spend I would build a house down the cape and with whatever's left I would buy a boat." He is also a rugged man, who insisted "Sundays are for hockey and work." Tony Cerce, competitor, soccer enthusiast, rugged American teenager who is a big fan of cinnamon toast crunch, classmate, and all around good kid.

Monday, September 22, 2014

My Bucket List

1.  Be in Philly when they win the Superbowl: The Eagles have never won a Superbowl, and the carnage and mass chaos that would ensue if they do we be too good to miss. I would go to Philly and help burn down the city like every good Eagles fan should.

2. Play Monopoly with real money: I am the undefeated monopoly champion of the world, and anyone who thinks different is wrong. If the money was real I would be like John Rockefeller, and all my friends would be poor and it would be hilarious.

3. Score a TD: I have 9 more games to score a touchdown and I plan on it. I would literally get 46 15-yard penalties for excessive celebration because it finally happened.

4. Coach a team to a Superbowl: Because I've already accepted the fact that I will not personally win a Superbowl ever, so coaching is my only way to it. Yup, I'm going to be the coach living vicariously through his players. Its going to be like playing real life Madden, just not as frustrating.

5. Go to Ireland on St. Patty's day: As an Irish kid from Boston, I can only imagine what its like in Ireland on St. Patty's day. The festivities here in Boston are already a bit much i can only imagine what its like where we all came from.

6. Build/obtain a log cabin: A log cabin is the ultimate sign of a fulfilled life. If you have a log cabin there is no doubt surrounding the fact that you have accomplished what you set out to in life and that no one can tell you what to do.

7. Go to the airport and ask for a surprise ticket: Walk up to the counter, ask for a ticket to somewhere, and then have fun. Spend the day or the weekend wherever I end up and enjoy the spontaneity of my life.

8. Get accepted to college: I don't want to be a loser so i should probably get a degree.

Response to "The Case Against High School Sports" by Amanda Ripley

     In Amanda Ripley’s article “The Case Against High-School Sports” she argues that sports are detrimental, and distracting to the United States education system; when in fact sports are valuable tools to motivate, teach, and encourage student athletes to make the right decisions. As a Senior Captain on the football team at my high school, I understand firsthand the effects sports have on academics. In my 4 years of high school, I have witnessed countless kids push to make grades to stay on their athletic team while only a handful have not succeeded and failed off. The passion that these kids have for their sports pushes them and motivates them to, at the very least, not fail their classes. While it motivates them to pass, the system may not motivate the children enough. The requirements for student athletes to stay on the field should be similar to college athletes, who have to maintain a cumulative GPA higher than their schools standards to stay eligible.
     Ripley asks a question of her readers, “How would kids learn about grit, teamwork, and fair play?” and I ask the same question as well. In what way would the kids learn about camaraderie, teamwork, and how to sacrifice their own needs for the need of the group? Where else would the kids learn about discipline, their self-worth, and how hard work pays off? The teamwork and discipline skills taught in sports carry over into every aspect of life, no matter what career path taken. Along with the life skills gained from these experiences, sports give kids a way to build relationships with other kids similar to them, an opportunity not afforded in school.

     A key point that Ripley fails to mention is the free time given to these student athletes, who in most cases, have never had this free time. They now have a gap in their life that could just as easily be filled with drugs, alcohol, or gang violence. Now not all children who have their sports taken away will turn to gangs, however schools in troubled districts may have kids at higher risk to get involved in illegal activity while not playing sports. On the other hand, as evident in the media, sports don’t always have the positive affect on violence and substance abuse that they claim to have. All in all, fundamentally, it is a bad decision to remove sports from American high schools because kids will lack the means to build teamwork, learn self-worth, discipline, and to better themselves as an individual and as part of a unit that works towards the greater good.

Tuesday, September 9, 2014

My Pet Peeves

Trent Cole, leader of the murder squad D-Line

1. People who don't play football but think they know about it: I know that our team did bad, but you telling me what we did wrong using terms you learned on Sportscenter this morning is not going to do anything but make me despise you on a cellular level.

2. Jerry Jones: What about Jerry Jones doesn't bother me would be an easier question to answer. He tries as hard as he can to be successful and fails miserably every time. The way the camera men show his reaction every time Tony Romo throws a pick brings a smile to my face. He BOUGHT a superbowl ring, and is stuck in the 90's like every other cowboys fan ever.

3. People who remember things when you get in the car: Everyone is in the car, ready to go, and now someone decides they forgot something. They couldn't have said anything or got what they needed before everyone was ready, but now that they can hold up the group they take advantage of it.

4. When people crinkle/fold their money or have the faces facing the wrong way: Are you some sort of savage, uncivilized beast that can't own a wallet? The best thing in the whole entire world is a crisp bill, and those who taint that are equivalent to Satan in my eyes.

5. When people are wrong and can not except it: Hey buddy, you are wrong, accept it. Every single point you made in your argument has been proven to be wrong and you still think you are right. Their unbelievable stubbornness, and unwavering pride makes them look even more stupid than being wrong in the first place.

6. People who ask me why I like the Eagles: I know its unbelievably hard to even comprehend, but yes, I live in Massachusetts and I like the Philadelphia Eagles. I am a connoisseur of football and appreciate the Eagles fundamentals. A 4-3/3-4 defense who blitzes 90% of the time and a west coast offense that throws 70% of the time, whats not to love? And the Eagles defensive line is a straight murder squad

7. Eli Manning: So you Patriots fans think you hate Eli, that's funny. You guys have only had a couple years of despising this man, Eagles fans invented it. I am not kidding one bit when I say that if i was ever close enough to him, I would throw batteries at him in a true Eagles fan spirit.

8. Andy Reid: There's no denying that he was the best coach in Eagles history, but after years of draft busts and obvious coaching mistakes, the guy looses his shine. Every time Kansas City is mentioned I can't help but think of how they'll hate his walrus looking face in 10 years.